How to apply fertilizer according to the characteristics of sugar cane?
Sugarcane production is high and requires a large amount of fertilizer. According to various measurements, each 100 kg of raw sugar cane is required to absorb nitrogen (N) of 1.7 to 2.1 kg, phosphorus (P2O5) of 0.4 to 0.6 kg, and potassium (K2O) of 2.0 to 2.7 kg. The amount and proportion of nutrient absorption in sugarcane at different growth stages are also different due to changes in growth centers. In the germination stage of sugarcane, the nutrients needed are mainly provided by the nutrients stored by the seedlings themselves, without the need to absorb nutrients from the outside until the new seedlings and leaves continue to absorb a small amount of nutrients, absorbed nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium accounted for 3%, 1%, and 3% of the total absorption, respectively. During the tillering stage, sugarcane continued to accumulate tillers, and nutrient uptake increased. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium absorption accounted for 12% and 14% of total absorption, respectively. 17%; entering the growing season, with the proliferation of the head, leaves, roots and the continuous regeneration, and the rapid growth of stem cane, the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium increased significantly, and the absorption reached 55% of the total absorption. %, 65%, 65%; the beginning of the growing season is the maximum efficiency period of sugarcane nutrition, and also the key period of fertilization; to the mature stage of the process, the growth of sugarcane is slow or stopped, the fertilizer needs to be reduced, but nitrogen, phosphorus, The absorption of potassium still accounts for 30%, 25%, and 15% of the total amount of absorption, respectively, for the needs of various parts of the plant and the further accumulation of sucrose.
In order to meet the demand for nutrients in sugar cane, the available fertilization measures are: 1 base fertilizer. Sugarcane not only needs a large amount of fertilizer, but also is more resistant to fertilizer. A sufficient base fertilizer can promote the development of sugarcane roots, germination fast, and strong growth, laying a good foundation for later growth. The amount of base fertilizer is generally 2 to 3 tons of organic fertilizer per 667 m 2 , 3 to 5 kg of urea, 5 to 20 kg of superphosphate, and 5 to 8 kg of potassium fertilizer (potassium sulfate is good). Conditional addition of oil cake 20 to 30 kg. The base fertilizer should be applied to the planting ditch in the next planting; 2 seedling fertilizer and tiller fertilizer. In order to promote the rapid growth of sugarcane tillers, it is necessary to apply the seedling fertilizer early and stabilize the application of the fertilizer. The seedling fertilizer is applied in the basic seedlings, and the seedlings are applied with 3 to 4 leaves, 3 to 4 kg of urea per 667 m2, 10 kg of phosphate fertilizer and 50 to 100 kg of plant ash. According to the actual situation, the amount of fertilizer should be determined according to the actual situation. If the base fertilizer and seedling fertilizer are sufficient, the sugarcane seedlings are strong and can be applied once at the peak of the tillering period, and the dosage should be reduced. Conversely, the seedlings are weak, and the amount of fertilizer should be increased. And applied in two times. Once at the beginning of the tillering, to promote the division of the smashing of the manure; once in the tribute period, to maintain the cockroaches, said strong manure. Generally, the fertilizer is divided into 1.5 to 2 tons of human and animal waste per 667 m 2 and 5 to 7 kg of urea; 3 attacking fertilizer. Sugarcane enters the jointing elongation period, which is the period in which sugarcane grows fastest, grows the most, and absorbs the most. It must be reapplied. The amount of attacking fertilizer is 2 tons per animal feed, 2 to 8 kilograms of urea, 5 kilograms of potassium fertilizer, and combined with cultivating large-scale soil; 4 strong tail fertilizer. Sugarcane growth slows down in the late growth stage, but insufficient fertilizer supply will affect the accumulation of sugar, and it is not conducive to the cultivation of the lower sugarcane buds, so it can supplement the strong tail fertilizer. The strong tail fertilizer is applied two months before entering the mature stage. 2 to 3 kilograms of urea can be used per 667 m 2 , and the water is poured and combined with high soil. Strong tail fertilizer should not be too late, so as not to be late and ripe.
Sugarcane is a crop that requires more silicon. Its silicon content in the leaves is as high as 4.5%. When the effective silicon in the soil is less than 100 mg/kg, the effect of applying silicon is obvious. Silicon fertilizer is usually used as base fertilizer. It is 450-650 kg of slag silicon fertilizer per 667 m 2 or 20 kg of high-efficiency silicon fertilizer (effective silica is more than 50%), which is better with organic fertilizer.